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Why adding glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate in Maxi Adult 1 et Maxi Adult 2?

Lots of dogs suffer from osteoarthritis, which is a very painful and disabling disease that becomes worses and worse by the day. Large breed dogs are the most concerned by this disease. However, it is possible to stabilize or even to prevent the evolution of osteo-articular lesions thanks to an early and regular nutritional intake of some disease-modifying osteoarthritis agents, such as glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate.

Origin and treatment of osteoarthritis

All the articulations are covered with cartilage that makes the articular surfaces able to slip one on each other, and to absorb shocks. Cartilage gets renewed all the time. But when it gets older, its structure changes: its resistance dicreases, it gets cracked, and the underlying bone remains without protection.

Then the bone itself gets modified, and this evolution can lead to osteo-arthritis development. Over 7 years old, about 40 % of large-breed dogs are victims of osteo-arthritis, especially those suffering already from hip dysplasia, osteochondrosis or those who have been submitted to too early or too intense physical exertion.

Classically, an anti-inflammatory medical treatment is decided, in order to dicrease the pain and to improve the articular mobility. But some of these drugs accelerate the degeneration of the cartilage. Moreover, non-steroidic anti-inflammatory drugs promote the apparition of digestive ulcers.

Absorption and distribution of glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate

Cartilage is composed of cells, called chondrocytes, enveloped inside a matrix that contains: water, collagen and proteoglycanes. Proteoglycanes are macromolecules that ensure cartilage elasticity.

Glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate are able to get integrated into the structure of proteoglycanes to provide building-blocks for the edification of the cartilage.

More than 70 % of glucosamine and chondroitine are absorbed through the digestive tract, and get fixed in the joints. Oral administration allows to obtain rapidly active concentration of glucosamine and chondroitine in the articular cartilages and in the synovial liquid that bathes the articulations.

Roles of glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate

The action of glucosamine is oriented towards the stimulation of the synthesis of collagen and proteoglycanes by chondrocytes, whereas chondroitine sulfate inhibits the action of enzymes responsible for the destruction of the cartilage. Then the association of both allows to benefit from a synergic effect.

This is made obvious in vivo , when making act the serum of dogs that received a dietary supplement of glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate, on a culture of cartilage cells. After 30 days, the enzymatic degradation of cartilage is slowed down by 70 %, whereas the incorporation of glucosamine in the cells increases by 90 %.

Clinical studies

In man

The clinical efficiency of chondroitine or of a mix of glycosaminoglycanes has alternatively been tested, orally or parenterally. In people suffering from knee osteo-arthritis, one notices a significant dicrease of the pain felt, an improvement of the articular mobility, less surgical interventions and less anti-inflammatory treatments required in the treated groups compared to control groups.

Improvement is noticed as early as the 3rd week of treatment.

In dog

In that species, the hip dysplasia model has often been used to test the clinical efficiency of glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate, so as other substances. Several studies report interesting results: dogs improve their score of articular mobility, and the pain when handling is lower.

In dogs suffering from knee inflammation because of the section of the anterior cruciate ligament, appreciable differences are observed in dogs treated with a mix of glycosaminoglycanes, compared to non-treated dogs:

  • less collagenases (enzymes responsible for the destruction of collagen), released in the cartilage;
  • inside the harmed articulation, the articular cartilage is in better shape.
Conclusion

The role of glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate is to prevent or to slow the evolution of osteo-arthrosis problems in large breed dogs. The earlier they are administered, the more chance we have to limit the degeneration of the cartilage. This is why glucosamine and chondroitine sulfate are included as soon as the Adult 1 stage.


Donated by the Borg Cardona and Co. Ltd. visit Borg Cardona website



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